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There are four variants in Airbus' A Family: the A, A, A and A With the jetliners' different fuselage lengths, this product line .
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Therefore, different flow selections result in different total airflows and air exchange rates. When the flow is selected e. Thus, if a lower flow is selected, fuel will be saved while the total airflow and its contribution to comfort is kept. Air Management will improve fuel efficiency by controlling the fresh pack airflow according to the actual seat layout and the seat load factor. Fresh air is supplied from the packs. This airflow directly affects the fuel consumption. The air is equally distributed over the whole cabin length. After leaving the cabin, this airflow is split: Some air will leave the aircraft through the outflow valves, the remainder will be recirculated by the recirculation system.
Leakages are neglected. MAN operates without air management system. It computes both the pack airflow quantity and the cabin recirculated airflow quantity taking into account: - The airflow selector position; - The number of passengers which is enter in the MCDU INIT A page ; - The number of seats; - The cargo cooling selection. In single pack operations, or with APU bleed supply, any selection is irrelevant since, in such cases, a high flow is automatically regulated.
Pack flow control valve Pack flow control valve 2. Pack flow indication Pack flow indication 3. Pack compressor outlet temperature indication Target airflow 4. Temperature control valve position indication Pack compressor outlet temperature indication 5.
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Pack outlet temperature indication Pack outlet temperature indication 6. By pass valve indication Emergency Ram Air inlet indication 8.
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Users indication Users indication 9. The AFIS concept is designed to allow the aircraft to receive data and communications from a number of external sources satellite, data radio, gatelink, etc , and to use an onboard server distribute information and services to the various users. There will be dedicated terminals for the cockpit crew, cabin crew and maintenance personnel to allow access to operational information onboard. Passenger terminals and in-seat outlets will provide access to a variety of passenger services. Initially, the following applications are envisaged: Flight Operations cockpit crew Passengers Maintenance.
This technique is already standard practice on most large aircraft, but to help pilots become accustomed to the A—, and to give confidence on narrow taxiways, the A— will have a Taxi Aid Camera System TACS. The TACS consists of two externally-mounted video cameras, one on the fin looking forward along the fuselage, and the other under the belly looking forward towards the nosewheel. These will provide a composite display, which will be available by selection on either the PFD or SD cockpit screens.
Symbology will be added to the displays to assist maneuvering, and external lights provided to ensure the system is usable at night. The ELMS carries operational software and a database, which may be customized by airlines. Each fire detection loop comprises two fire detectors connected in parallel.
There are no significant changes to the overhead control panel. The rudder is also used to provide roll control, in the event of a total flight control computer failure mechanical back up mode. It will also allow easier and more effective incorporation of the rudder into the turbulence damping modes of the flight control system.
Although electrically- signalled, the rudder will retain its function as a back up flight control by virtue of a back up electrical power supply powered by either the blue or yellow hydraulic system , and an autonomous back up control module, independent of the flight control computers. VMCA VMCL VMCG VMCL-2 When in de-icing conditions, the same handling qualities and performance are targeted on the A as on A Pitch limit indication is provided at Takeoff: - From power application to 3 sec after take off where maximum pitch attitude is optimized between 9.
Previously, the IRSs were used as sensors for the handling functions and separate accelerometers used for comfort functions. Now all sensors, including some additional gyrometers, will be used for both handling and comfort functions. Accelerometers used for comfort functions.
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All sensors used for handling and comfort functions. The principal reason for the difference is the change of the wing design, resulting in an increase in the wing sweep. The increase in Fuel Volume approx. The new engines mean that there will be an increase in engine burn rates associated with the new aircraft.
The extra tank has led to extra pipe work: Valves for refueling and Vent systems to that tank. With regards to fuel quantities, care must be advised in checking the values given below to a given aircraft MSN. Vent tanks are located next to the outer and trim tanks, to allow for an overflow from the other tanks and provide gaseous ventilation. The tank is located in front of the aft Cargo Compartment and to the rear of the main landing gear. The fuel on the A is stored in the following tanks:.
Surge tanks are located next to the outer tanks and trim tanks to allow for overflow and gaseous ventilation. The modification of the two inner tanks has also led to a change in the collector cell arrangement, which may be seen in the opposite diagram. The pump outlet is connected to the trim tank line via an isolation valve.
However, if these pumps are not selected, then a dedicated APU pump is installed in the line to supply the fuel pressure. The addition of the rear Center Tank on A also requires 1 inlet valve, one isol valve, one transfer valve, and two transfer pumps. A A modification.
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On the A, three pushbuttons are added to control the rear center tank. The operator interface is either through the standard refuel panel, fitted in the lower surface of the fuselage just aft of the undercarriage bay, or through the optional refuel panel and MCDU in the cockpit. A only. Bleed air is supplied to the inboard end of Slat 4 through the inboard telescopic tube, and then directed to Slats 3 and 4 piccolo tubes.
Liquid Crystal Technology LCD offers a much-enhanced contrast in these conditions and is a much lighter system — up to thirty-five kilos less. In a fast changing aeronautical environment, EIS 2 flexibility will allow new applications to come on-stream such as electronic Jeppesen cards, forecasted weather at destination or diversion airports and 3D images etc.
Harmonization will result in a unique pool of equipment that may be developed progressively through advancing technology and in service experience. Even if the outside dimensions of each display unit panel are unchanged, the size of the usable surface of the screen has increased in area from Firstly this has impacted the readability of the information with more space between each zone of information and secondly, the new screen size has also freed some additional space for future new line or column implementation.
CRT technology had an intrinsically limited contrast under sunny conditions. LCD technology offers a far better contrast in these conditions and a contrast, which is stable all along its guaranteed lifetime. Concerning the FMA, there is now the space provision for an additional character by column and for an additional line of message text.
The right pedal controls the right main landing gear brakes, and the rear wheel brakes of the center landing gear. It is, therefore, dependent on tachometer wheel speed acquisition. This enhanced autobrake function provides improved accuracy in achieving the selected deceleration rate, while maintaining a perfect level of comfort: No deceleration overshoot, no nose landing gear slammed on the ground. It also enables exactly the same pressure to be applied on all the brakes, thereby achieving more homogeneous temperatures in all the brakes.
Airline feedback has been instrumental in defining the autobrake mode. Therefore, to avoid airlines having to request different deceleration rates, three additional landing modes have been set: LO and HI modes are available for landing. In addition, an RTO autobrake mode will be set for takeoff, in the event of a rejected takeoff.
Thus, the light may not illuminate on contaminated runways, even if the autobrake is functioning normally.
Antiskid will also be available after gravity extension and nosewheel steering shall no longer be linked to the antiskid function. This means that braking cannot be at its optimum for all wheels, if they are not on the same runway conditions i. Moreover, the wheel-slip threshold is unique for any runway condition and, therefore, cannot be at its exact optimum for both dry and wet runways. It is a compromise selected by safety for slippery runways. It takes into account the individual behavior of each wheel, which varies depending on the runway's surface condition.
Even on wet patches, the braking of each wheel will be at its optimum. Braking now takes into account sudden wheel speed deceleration or acceleration in order to adapt the wheel-slip threshold, used to release or reactivate braking. This new antiskid function, reducing antiskid cycling, provides a smoother braking response. It is expected to improve braking performance, particularly on non-uniform contaminated runways. It bears noting that antiskid improvements are also applicable to alternate braking with antiskid. The warning is available even when BSCU is not powered. BSCU channels indication 2.
ACCU indications 4. III indications Wheel number identification. Brake temperature indications Release indications. The main operational differences pertaining to the pneumatic system arise as a result of electro-pneumatic control.
In February , the airline's A performed the longest non-stop commercial air service in the world, conducting a non-stop flight between Singapore and Los Angeles. The A was typically used by airlines as a medium-sized long-haul aircraft, and was often a replacement for older Boeing s as it was more likely profitable. Airbus had built up to nine different customized versions of the A to private customer's specific demands prior to The A has frequently been operated as a dedicated transport for heads of state.
The aircraft was unused and stored in Hamburg until it was procured by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal of the House of Saud ,  and later sold to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi , then- President of Libya ; the aircraft was operated by Afriqiyah Airways and was often referred to as Afriqiyah One. In , jet fuel prices doubled compared to the year before; consequently, the A's fuel consumption led airlines to reduce flight stages exceeding 15 hours. While short flights stress aircraft more than long flights and result in more frequent fuel-thirsty take-offs and landings, ultra-long flights require completely full fuel tanks.
The higher weights in turn require a greater proportion of an aircraft's fuel fraction just to take off and to stay airborne. In August Cathay Pacific stated that rising fuel costs were hurting its trans-Pacific long-haul routes disproportionately, and that it would cut the number of such flights and redeploy its aircraft to shorter routes such as between Hong Kong and Australia. By , Singapore Airlines had phased out the type, discontinuing SQ21 and SQ22 , which had been the longest non-stop scheduled flights in the world. International Airlines Group , the parent of Iberia Airlines which is also the operator of the last production A built , is overhauling its As for continued service for the foreseeable future, while it is retiring its As.
The IAG overhaul featured improved conditions and furnishings in the business and economy classes; the business-class capacity was raised slightly while not changing the type's overall operating cost. Lufthansa , which operates both Airbus As and s, concluded that, while it is not possible to make the A more fuel efficient, it can respond to increased interest in business-class services by replacing first-class seats with more business-class seats to increase revenue.
In , Snecma announced that they planned to use the A as a flying testbed for the development of a new open rotor engine. This test aircraft is forecast to conduct its first flight in Open rotor engines are typically more fuel-efficient but noisier than conventional turbofan engines; introducing such an engine commercially has been reported as requiring significant legislative changes within engine approval authorities due to its differences from contemporary jet engines.
The engine, partly based on the Snecma M88 turbofan engine used on the Dassault Rafale , is being developed under the European Clean Sky research initiative. There are four variants of the A The A and A were launched in with introduction into service in March for the The A and A were launched in with introduction into service in All variants were available in a corporate version.
Due to its large wingspan, four engines, low capacity and improvements to the larger A, the proved heavy and unpopular with mainstream airlines. Only 28 As were produced. The closest Boeing competitor is the Boeing ER. Only one A was produced. Following the , other As were later given performance improvement packages PIPs that helped them achieve similar gains in capability as to the A Those aircraft are labeled AX. The final airline example of the A was retired by Air Leisure in July This is the initial version, having flown on 25 October , and entered service with Lufthansa and Air France in March The A will be superseded by the A The largest operator of this type is Lufthansa , who has operated a fleet of 30 aircraft.
The A Enhanced is the latest version of this model and was first delivered to South African Airways in , with Air Mauritius receiving the A Enhanced into its fleet in As of July , there were 96 Airbus As in airline service. When the A was introduced, it was the world's longest-range commercial airliner. It first flew on 11 February , and was certified on 3 December Air Canada was supposed to be the launch customer, but filed for bankruptcy in January , delaying delivery to March. This allowed early deliveries to the new launch customer, Emirates , allowing the carrier to launch nonstop service from Dubai to New York—its first route in the Americas.
Compared with the A, the features a 4. The centerline main landing gear was changed to a four-wheel bogie to support additional weight. Designed for ultra long-haul routes, the has a range of 9, nautical miles,  where the Boeing LR have an 8, nmi range,  fewer. Due to its range, the is capable of travelling non-stop from London to Perth, Western Australia , though a return flight requires a fuel stop due to headwinds.
At the time, the flight was the longest scheduled non-stop commercial flight in the world. It uses the strengthened structure and enlarged fuel capacity of the A The certification aircraft, a de-rated A model, became the first delivery, to Thai Airways International , on 11 April Like the A, a shortened derivative of the , the was unpopular.
Also the ultra long-haul market was a niche that was difficult to profit from, due to the amount of fuel that had to be carried. In addition, the could not meet its maximum range without carrying a reduced load of passengers, so several operators reconfigured their s from a mix of business and premium economy to an all-business class with seats. It provides similar passenger capacity to a but with 25 percent more cargo volume, and at lower trip and seat costs. The first flight of the A was made on 23 April The A was replaced by the A It held the record for the world's longest commercial aircraft until the first flight of the Boeing in February Upper deck main cabin space can be optionally increased by locating facilities such as crew rest areas, galleys , and lavatories upon the aircraft's lower deck.
Celebrating 50 Years of Airbus Part 1: A300, A310, A320 Series & A340
In early , Airbus reportedly advised carriers to reduce cargo in the forward section by 5. Affected airlines considered filing compensation claims with Airbus. Emirates became the launch customer for the HGW when it ordered 18 at the Paris Air Show ;  but postponed its order indefinitely and later cancelled. Rival Qatar Airways , which placed its order at the same airshow, took delivery of only four aircraft with the first aircraft on 11 September As of July , there were 60 As in service with six airlines worldwide. A total of aircraft all A variants were in service in July Data through end of July Updated on 6 August As of November [update] , the A has never been involved in a fatal incident, although there have been six hull losses : .
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Aircraft Value News. Aviation Today. Archived from the original on 29 April All of the Airbus As and s are delivered. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 15 April Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 17 March A higher aspect ratio wing has a lower drag and a slightly higher lift than a lower aspect ratio wing.
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